Research in Social Sciences and Technology 2021-12-17T07:49:36+00:00 Bulent Tarman Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>Research in Social Sciences and Technology (RESSAT)</strong></em> is an international journal that aims to publish scholarly work in the social sciences, technology, and their impact on education. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, editorials, and book reviews.</p> <p>&nbsp;The RESSAT is an open access journal, with free access for each visitor. The journal uses an online submission system to ensure the international visibility and the rigid peer review process. The journal is published twice a year in online version.</p> <p>The overarching goal of the journal is to disseminate origianl research findings that make significant contributions to different areas of social sciences and technology with emphasis on education. The aim of the journal is to promote the work of academic researchers in social sciences, education and technology.</p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/btarman/2018_v3_issue_31.png" width="266" height="385"></p> <p>The topics related to this journal include but are not limited to:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><em>General Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>History</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Geography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Philosophy</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Law&nbsp;</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Economic</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Political Science</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Sociology. criminology. demography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Communication and Culture</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Educational Assessment and Evaluation</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Intercultural Communication</em></li> <li class="show"><em>International and Comparative Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Transnationalism in Education</em></li> </ul> The Political Awareness and Participation of University Students in post-Apartheid South Africa 2021-10-10T05:31:19+00:00 Kazeem Ajasa Badaru Emmanuel Olusola Adu <p>Being politically aware and participating in politics are essential determinants of a society’s democratic survival. One source of concerns for researchers of political behavior regarding post-apartheid South Africa is the low rates of youth’s political participation. There is however a dearth of empirical studies in the extant literature on the university students’ political awareness and their political participation in post-apartheid South Africa. This mixed-methods research was conducted to fill in this obvious gap. A study sample of 372 undergraduate students selected from one rural university in the Eastern Cape through the stratified random sampling techniques yielded the quantitative data, and the qualitative data were obtained from five (5) executive members of the Student Representative Council (SRC) who were purposively selected for semi-structured interviews. Both quantitative and qualitative data analyses were performed by employing simple descriptive and Pearson correlation statistics as well as a thematic content analytical approach. Results showed that nearly all the respondents demonstrated a high level of political awareness in terms of rights to vote and be voted for (99.4%), the importance of parliament, and the national constitution (99.1%) while the respondents’ levels of political participation appeared to be below average as only (49.2%) voted during the 2017 SRC election, whereas (30.4%) of them voted in the 2014 national elections. Students’ political awareness was found to be significantly correlated with their participation in political activities on-campus (r = 0.130) and off-campus (r = 0.185). In conclusion, the bivariate analysis indicated that there was a positive correlation between students’ political awareness and their participation in politics (P&lt;0.001).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-26T21:09:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## University Students’ Learning Disruption and Affordance in a Contested Learning Environment 2021-10-10T05:31:18+00:00 Siti Nur'Aini <p>This study investigates how university students engage with their learning affordances in a contested environment due to the Coronavirus pandemic. This qualitative research employed a case study approach involving 136 participants. Data analysis was conducted using qualitative analysis as a circular process to describe, classify, and perceive the phenomenon and how the learning, affordances, and society were interconnected. The main framework of the research was the theory of affordance and how it was available for university students in their learning environment that changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected in the first semester of 2020 through an online survey on Google form. The findings indicate the importance of the social environment to provide affordance for the students to adjust with them. Four kinds of affordances emerged from the study; internet affordance, assignment affordance, domestic affordance, and distance learning affordance. The role of the social environment is definitive in changing how students manage their affordances.</p> 2021-09-26T21:12:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Resurgence of Large Class Sizes and Pedagogical Reform in 21st Century Secondary School History Classrooms 2021-10-10T05:31:18+00:00 Godsend T. Chimbi Loyiso C. Jita <p>This paper examines the interaction between class size and teachers’ selection of teaching methods while implementing a new history curriculum in Zimbabwean secondary schools. Policy makers, parents, teachers, and students are worried about large class sizes because they are associated with higher dropout rates, less teacher-student interaction and rote pedagogy. Although class sizes had significantly declined in the latter half of the 20th century, the growth of online learning has witnessed class sizes ballooning in the 21st century, reigniting the class size debate. The large class size challenge has re-emerged in the developed North although the problem has never been resolved in the developing South. Using the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism and a qualitative multiple case-study approach, data were collected over an eight-week period using document analysis, semi-structured interviews and lesson observations. Results seem to challenge the conventional view that large classes coerce teachers to use rote pedagogy and small classes encourage learner-centric practices. Teachers’ choices of teaching methods were neither linked to class size nor new pedagogical policy. Instead, teachers’ personal philosophy to instruction appeared to be the decisive factor to the teaching methods they used, rather than the size of the class. To promote pedagogical change, improving teacher quality appears a more valuable and cheaper investment than constructing new schools and employing more teachers to reduce class sizes.</p> 2021-10-01T11:54:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effective Mentoring to Improve Job Satisfaction among Beginner Teachers at South African Primary Schools 2021-10-10T05:31:18+00:00 R. J. Nico Botha Jean-Pierre Hugo <p>Teachers leaving the profession before age of retirement is an ongoing problem in schools worldwide. While fewer teachers enter the profession each year, the number of teachers leaving the profession has increased. Many teachers listed lack of job satisfaction as a reason for leaving the education profession, while citing the lack of mentoring as a main cause of job dissatisfaction. This study explores the impact of an effective mentoring program at primary schools in the province of Mpumalanga, South Africa to support and improve job satisfaction among beginner teachers entering the profession. This study follows a quantitative approach, consisting of a Likert-scale questionnaire. The sample of the study was a number of 550 teachers (principals, deputy principals, heads of department, teachers and student teachers) from different races and cultures from 50 randomly selected state and private primary schools in Mpumalanga. After comparing the literature with the respondents' data, the researchers found that the development and implementation of a mentoring program in the province of Mpumalanga would positively impacts beginner teachers' job satisfaction, thus indicating a definite need for such a mentoring program.</p> 2021-10-01T12:03:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigating the Effects of E-Learning as a Method of Curriculum Dissemination for Rural TVET College Students 2021-10-10T05:31:17+00:00 Makhosi P. Madimabe Bunmi I. Omodan <p>The study investigates the effects of e-learning as an alternative form of curriculum dissemination for rural Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) college students. This study adopted connectivism theory, which enabled lecturers to reflect and adapt to how learning has changed and the accompanying implications of designing the spaces and structures to the current mode of learning. The researcher made use of two research methods to gather data; phone interviews and questionnaires. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0, Office Word format. The results indicated that the unavailability of technological resources, lack of financial support from single parents’ side due to socio-economic factors, and child-headed families hinder the correct implementation of e-learning and make it difficult to reach its objectives.</p> 2021-10-01T22:12:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Black Students’ Experiences of Academic Support Programs during First Year at University: Case of Extended Studies 2021-10-10T05:31:17+00:00 Belinda Ramathetse Matabane Mogalatjane Edward Matabane <p>In the last three decades, historically white, liberal arts universities began to admit small numbers of black students from rural communities because apartheid policies relaxed. However, those liberal arts universities had doubts about black students’ key skills and knowledge to cope with the demands of higher education. This situation gave birth to Extended Studies Program (ESP) whereby the traditional three-year degree program was extended by a year to close this gap. This study seeks to answer the question: What are black students’ experiences and views about academic support offered to them during their first year at university? In this study both qualitative and quantitative research methods were followed, and purposive sampling was deployed. Data were generated from different sources for triangulation, namely questionnaires and interviews.&nbsp; Participants (N=104) were made of 43 males and 61 females.&nbsp; The results of the study suggest that the need for academic support is not exclusive to first-year students. Improved systematic academic support gives rise to improved student academic performance. Throughout the study, necessity, and urgency of Academic Support Programs (ASPs) is recognized. Recommendations are made suggesting that ASPs be administered throughout the undergraduate programs and not just at the first-year level of study.</p> 2021-10-02T09:22:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Accounting Teachers’ Voices on Factors Affecting Online Teaching during the 4th Industrial Revolution in the Face of COVID-19 in Selected High Schools in the Eastern Cape, South Africa 2021-10-10T05:31:17+00:00 Melikhaya Skhephe Christabel Mantlana <p>The most prominent debate in South Africa is how teachers will provide instruction online. The purposes of this article was to explore Accounting teachers’ voices on factors affecting online teaching. To this end, the researchers employed a qualitative approach and a case study research design. Interviews were used as a method to collect data from 10 Accounting teachers who were purposively selected. Thematic data analysis was used.&nbsp; The results revealed that, Accounting teachers are lacking required knowledge and skills needed to facilitate technology learning in their classrooms.&nbsp; Results further reveal that, online teaching arrived at an awkward moment when teachers were faced with COVID-19 pandemic. The study concludes that teachers’ voices play an important role in any proposed changes in the classroom. The Eastern Cape Province where the study was conducted should quickly roll out infrastructure at all schools aiming to support online classrooms. It is recommended in this paper that teachers need to be workshopped in online teaching in order for them to perform effectively.</p> 2021-10-02T16:55:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Alteration of Consumption Habits in Turkey Over Time 2021-10-10T05:31:16+00:00 Mahmut Zeki Akarsu <p>Simon Kuznets and John Maynard Keynes did research on the subject of propensity to consume. Kuznets asserted that people do not alter their consumption/saving ratio and spend more when they have more disposable income. Keynes alleged that when disposable income increases, the rate of saving also increases over time because people tend to keep their consumption habits steady. Namely, the consumption/saving ratio of households or individuals tends to decrease as disposable income goes up. And in this study, the Keynesian consumption function is investigated in the Turkish economy. The result of this research might give insight into the future of the consumption/saving ratio in Turkey. In the study, the ARDL econometric model is operated with data from the Turkish Statistical Institute. The result of the study is that people change their consumption habits with the increase of disposable income. As a result, the consumption level has been slowing down, and the propensity to consume diminishes. That proves that the Keynesian consumption function holds in Turkey.</p> 2021-10-02T17:00:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cross-fertilization in Teaching and Learning between Institutions after COVID-19 Shutdown: A Collaborative Effort 2021-10-10T05:31:16+00:00 Joyce Phikisile Dhlamini Vivian Thuso Molaodi <p>Research reported in this article investigated the effectiveness of collaborative effort between schools to bridge the existing gaps that erupted during the outbreak of COVID-19. There are gaps in teaching and learning within the previously privileged institutions and the marginalised institutions in South Africa. Such gaps might have a negative impact on how teaching and learning are conducted. The purpose of this article was to investigate the creative and constructive ways of managing the anxiety related to socio-economic impacts in schools, amongst which were the introduction of online teaching and learning technologies, new methodologies and contents. This article is underpinned by the concepts of the establishment of advantageous strategies for collaboration<strong>, </strong>knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer. Qualitative document analysis has been adopted as a methodology to collect information for this study. The outbreak of COVID-19 has evoked inequalities amongst the communities. However, the re-opening of schools exacerbated multiple challenges. While teaching and learning is the centre of the education project in South Africa, which the country has to adapt to, most institutions were faced with a number of challenges. This study’s major finding revealed that collaboration is synergistic and can bring out the best contribution that might currently perceive partnership within the school system. This article recommends ways of bridging the gap between schools through developing partnerships between institutions through cross-fertilisation.</p> 2021-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Chronicling school principals’ experiences on school management in the context of COVID-19 stringency 2021-11-13T06:39:19+00:00 Bonginkosi Hardy Mutongoza Babawande Emmanuel Olawale Busiswa Mzilikazi <p>The COVID-19 pandemic experience has brought to the forefront the importance of leadership as institutions across the world are now trying to emerge from hibernation and rebuild broken academic practices. As such, this study sought to examine school principals’ experiences on school management in the context of COVID-19 stringency in four rural schools in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Underpinned by a qualitative research approach, the study employed a case study design in which semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from four rural school principals who had been purposively sampled. Findings of the study revealed that in order to combat challenges associated with teaching and learning, school principals engaged among other things, in mobilization of resources, engendering a technological culture among teachers, ensuring effective delivery of content. We further ascertained that although hamstrung by resource inadequacies, school principals in rural schools promoted school safety by ensuring transparent and effective communication, striving for the provision of safe and adequate facilities, among other things. Finally, our study also revealed that rural school principals ensured clear and consistent communication with staff, provided psychosocial assistance to staff members, and adapted performance and workload expectations.</p> 2021-11-12T11:16:04+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Plans and Interventions of South African Grade 1 Educators During the 2020 Lockdown Period 2021-11-17T06:42:18+00:00 Annemie Grobler <p>The extended lockdown in 2020 found South African educators employing innovative strategies to teach and assess Foundation Phase learners. Educators had to make do with reduced hours in the classroom and experienced new challenges in delivering curriculum content to learners that had barely grown accustomed to the formal classroom setup. Empirical research attempted to identify the plans and approaches used by grade 1 educators. The findings may indicate best practices as experienced in this time and help to inform the approach taken during future repetitions of extraordinary circumstances. A theoretical and conceptual framework based on the current constructivist approach adopted by the Curriculum Assessment and Policy Statement (CAPS) guided the empirical research and informed the construction of the questionnaire. The key findings were themed into strategies for presenting teaching and learning, communication, and the impact on schooling.&nbsp; Findings were compared to the premises of the theoretical framework and conclusions drawn. It was noted that educators were hesitant to move their schooling entirely to the virtual learning platform and eager to return to the school environment. Various obstacles posed by the digital divide were flagged as threats to future situations and the involvement of parents was emphasized. The resilience of educators to continue to ply their trade, and their belief in the indomitable spirit of children, may offer conducive circumstances for future innovations in education.</p> 2021-11-16T20:43:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19 induced psychosocial challenges in South African higher education: Experiences of staff and students at two rural universities 2021-11-20T06:43:52+00:00 Babawande Emmanuel Olawale Bonginkosi Hardy Mutongoza Emmanuel Olusola Adu Bunmi Isaiah Omodan <p>Although the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the education and mental health of the university environment is relatively unknown, it is expected to be very significant considering the high incidence of emotional reactions amongst university students and staff. &nbsp;While fears around COVID-19 exposure, anxieties, and the challenges of support normalize stress, anxiety, and depression as emotional reactions in the face of the pandemic, this psychosocial impact has negative consequences for the university community. Thus, in order to salvage the higher education institutions from the debilitating effects of the pandemic, there is a clear need to safeguard the welfare of students and staff. Hence, it becomes vital to examine the experience of members of the university community during the COVID-19 crisis in order to develop measures and implement interventions that will assist in navigating psychosocial challenges. To achieve this objective, the study employed a mixed-method research approach in which data was collected using web-based survey and online interviews. Concurrent triangulation sampling technique was employed to select a sample of fifteen (15) students, five (5) university managers, and five (5) lecturers – making twenty-five (25) respondents at each of the two universities, thus making a cumulative total of fifty (50) at two (2) rural universities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Thus, qualitative and quantitative data collected were analysed concurrently by first reporting the qualitative findings and then comparing them to the quantitative findings. Findings revealed that although the university environment traditionally provided opportunities for strengthening social ties which satisfy the universal need to belong to a community, the COVID-19 pandemic has altered rural university life, thus, significantly impacting on psychosocial wellbeing. The study recommends that rural institutions must facilitate psychosocial wellness programming with the assistance of wider stakeholders such as the government and the private sector who can assist in financing this initiative.</p> 2021-11-19T17:28:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effectiveness of Online Training for Rural Entrepreneurs During a Global Pandemic 2021-11-25T06:52:24+00:00 Lau Sie Hoe Mohd Ariff Zabidi Manja Vloreen Nity Mathew Adeline Engkamat Zalina Ibrahim Ahmad Lutfi Anis <p>The ability of rural entrepreneurs to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic greatly depends on their knowledge of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support online business. In this study, online surveys were conducted to assess the readiness and acceptance of rural entrepreneurs in adopting to the pandemic using the available technologies. Data collected were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using ANOVA. Online training modules were designed based on their specific needs. Although participants indicated that their frequency and skills of using the electronic devices or applications had generally increased or improved after the training, the increment was not statistically significant (α=0.05). This indicated that while the participants, to some extent, benefited from the online training provided, there has not been a significant impact on them.</p> 2021-11-24T08:00:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Together but Not Together: Challenges of Remote Learning for Students Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic in Rural South African Universities 2021-12-11T07:27:01+00:00 Newlin Marongwe Rufaro Garidzirai <p>The purpose of the study was to examine the challenges of remote learning that were faced by students in four rural institutions of higher learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic. It is well documented that in South Africa as well as globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the teaching and learning in higher institutions of education. A call was made by the Department of Higher Education and Training that mandated universities to adopt remote learning to save the academic year. That call was a blanket statement that did not consider the context of different universities, given the inequalities that existed prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 between the historically disadvantaged universities and the well-established ones. The study adopted a qualitative approach that made use of a desktop research methodology, as well as the media (Television, radio and newspapers<strong>)</strong>, and social media as sources of data gathering to document the challenges. One of the key findings was that some students studying at rural institutions of higher learning experienced challenges of limited skills as well as the convenience of and access to technology and other tools of trade. The paper concludes that such students were proposing that, ‘<em>we are together but not together”</em>. The root of such grievance is that they were grossly affected by the geographical and historical position of the universities they were enrolled at and the situation was deepened and exposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper recommends the equal redistribution of resources especially to previously disadvantaged Black universities. The paper further recommends that the Department of Education introduce online learning to students from as early as high school so that there will be continuity and ease in remoting learning.</p> 2021-12-10T21:04:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## E-learning Facilities for Teaching Secondary School Physics: Awareness, Availability and Utilization 2021-12-17T07:49:36+00:00 Abiodun A. Bada Loyiso C. Jita <p>Secondary school physics contribute significantly to the technological development of a nation because it lays the foundation for further studies in physics. Physics is an abstract science subject that relies greatly on practical, and the crucial role played by the use of instructional materials especially, e-learning facilities in this 21<sup>st</sup> century cannot be over emphasized. This study investigates the awareness, availability and utilization of e-learning facilities among secondary school physics teachers. We adopt the descriptive survey design which involved 78 physics teachers, randomly selected from all the secondary schools in Ondo, Nigeria. A researcher designed checklist was used to collect data for this study. Three research questions were answered using descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation) and the findings from this investigation revealed that physics teachers are aware of most of the e-learning facilities for teaching secondary school physics but only few of these facilities are readily available for teaching physics. This investigation also revealed that only one of these e-learning facilities (desktop computer) was utilized by secondary school physics teachers. This study conclude that e-learning facilities were not used in teaching secondary school physics in Ondo. Based on this findings, physics teachers are encouraged to use the few e-learning facilities that are available in secondary schools. Also, government education agencies and school management team are encouraged to further stress the importance of using the available e-learning facilities for teaching secondary school physics through in-service trainings and workshops.</p> 2021-12-16T11:26:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Learning Styles and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Grade 6 Learners`' Mathematics Performance in Buffalo City, South Africa 2021-12-17T07:49:36+00:00 Kemi Olajumoke Adu Ntombozuko Duku <p>Mathematics is a core subject in South Africa. Studies have shown that the performance of learners on this subject is not encouraging. Many factors have been alluded to by scholars as contributing factors to this poor performance. The gap between theory and practice of mathematics teaching can be bridged by the use of appropriate learning styles, availability, and utilization of instructional. This paper finds out the relationship that exists among learning styles, instructional materials, and mathematics performance of Grade 6. The choice of Grade 6 is important because it is the last grade level of primary school before a learner can enter secondary school level in South Africa. The study adopted a correlational research design of a quantitative approach. Stratified sampling techniques were used to select 1225 learners from Grade 6 schools within Buffalo City Metropolitan Education District. The data revealed among others that in Buffalo City, availability and utilization of instructional materials have no significant relationship with the mathematics performance of selected grade 6 learners (B=.023, t=.804, P≥0.05) while students learning styles (visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic) have a significant relationship with grade 6 learners Mathematics performance (B=-.113, t=-3.886, p&lt;0.05). The study concluded that one of the most fundamental issues to consider in improving Mathematics performance is the understanding of the learners’ learning styles and effective use of appropriate instructional materials for teaching Mathematics.</p> 2021-12-16T11:27:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##