Research in Social Sciences and Technology 2021-09-21T10:19:51+00:00 Bulent Tarman Open Journal Systems <p><em><strong>Research in Social Sciences and Technology (RESSAT)</strong></em> is an international journal that aims to publish scholarly work in the social sciences, technology, and their impact on education. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, editorials, and book reviews.</p> <p>&nbsp;The RESSAT is an open access journal, with free access for each visitor. The journal uses an online submission system to ensure the international visibility and the rigid peer review process. The journal is published twice a year in online version.</p> <p>The overarching goal of the journal is to disseminate origianl research findings that make significant contributions to different areas of social sciences and technology with emphasis on education. The aim of the journal is to promote the work of academic researchers in social sciences, education and technology.</p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/btarman/2018_v3_issue_31.png" width="266" height="385"></p> <p>The topics related to this journal include but are not limited to:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><em>General Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>History</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Geography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Philosophy</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Law&nbsp;</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Economic</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Political Science</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Sociology. criminology. demography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Communication and Culture</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Educational Assessment and Evaluation</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Intercultural Communication</em></li> <li class="show"><em>International and Comparative Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Transnationalism in Education</em></li> </ul> Editorial: Education and the Quest for Educating in the Current and the Post-COVID-19 Era 2021-09-20T03:51:52+00:00 Bunmi I Omodan Nolutho Diko <p>This special issue contains quality, well-researched, and well-argued articles towards inter/multi-disciplinary understanding of the current and future state, manner, and disposition of social, educational, environmental, humanitarian, and technological perspectives of COVID-19 pandemic. Readers, academics, practitioners and students are provided with robust knowledge on the state and status of the COVID-19 pandemic in the world from its advent in 2020, its present state and future projections. We thank all colleagues involved in the editorial and publishing process for their supports, assistance and exceptional guidance.&nbsp; We are bold to say that the quality involved in the publication process of RESSAT Journal is second to none. To all our authors, your quality products remain part of the historical contribution to knowledge on the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2021-09-17T11:56:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Covid-19 and Technology: Higher Education’s Responses to Inclusive Practices for Pre-Service Teachers with Disabilities 2021-09-20T03:51:57+00:00 Edwin Darrell De Klerk June Monica Palmer Greg Alexander <p>Transforming the learning experiences of pre-service teachers with disabilities from stigma and social exclusion to experiencing a sense of belonging, is a desirable imperative for learning mediators in the South African Higher Education (SAHE) context. This paper presents a relational content analysis of the concepts, theories and policies, related to effecting transformation in the meaning schemes of pre-service teachers with disabilities and to provide HEIs with inclusive responses to addressing their learning support needs. The theory of perspective transformation, which highlights the process of effecting change in a frame of reference, is applied. The theory expands on three dimensions, including psychological (changes in understanding of the self), convictional (revision of belief systems) and behavioural (changes in lifestyle) with a sound foundation of inclusion aimed at drawing on practices for the prevention of exclusion of the pre-service teacher with disabilities in SAHE spaces. The paper further analyses discourses extracted from Section 47 of the Salamanca Statement, (1994) that build on inclusion artefacts in addressing perspective transformation.&nbsp; The findings in terms of belonging show that affirmations of the discourses, related to an interpersonal connection with others, have the scope to affect pre-service teachers with disabilities’ need for a positive regard as a prerequisite to foster the inclusion of individuals within any given relationship. This paper recommends that SAHE institutions embrace an ethos of inclusivity to achieve transformative equity for pre-service teachers with disabilities and offers an inclusive response framework to ensure that they are able to participate, learn and be welcomed as appreciated associates of HEIs.</p> 2021-09-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Educating Progressed Learners in Times of COVID-19: How Can Bricolage Help? 2021-09-20T03:51:57+00:00 Bekithemba Dube Xolisile P. Ndaba <p>This paper discusses using bricolage to mitigate the struggles faced by progressed learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Most progressed learners perform poorly in many subjects, especially sciences. Their struggle has stimulated the need to find ways to enhance their performance. Reinvented artefacts and processes can be used for emancipation, and to transform agendas for improving the performance of progressed learners. To collect data, we used participatory action research, which uses a thematic approach to make meaning of data. We created a WhatsApp group to enable focus group discussions for collecting data, to circumvent COVID-19 restrictions. The group had 14 members, among whom teachers and learners from rural schools. The study found that the factors that contributed to poor performance were a lack of teaching and learning materials, too few teachers, less than optimal teaching methods and learners’ attitudes towards science subjects. The main argument of the article is that, in this time characterised by the COVID-19 pandemic, embracing bricolage has the impetus to mitigate challenges relating to the education of progressed learners. Thus, it is important to emancipate teachers, so that they can bricolise the environment for teaching and learning.</p> 2021-09-09T22:20:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Managing the Culture of COVID-19 "New Normal" as a Motivation for University Students in South Africa 2021-09-20T03:51:56+00:00 Bunmi I Omodan Cias T Tsotetsi Olugbenga A Ige <p>The advent of COVID-19 and its implication on university education has been the bone of contention in recent times. The COVID-19 emergency has led to a change in knowledge inputs, processes, and outputs. This trajectory has demotivated student approaches to their learning. In response to this revolution, this study provides motivational strategies through students' perspectives to respond to the underside of new normal among South African university students. Ubuntu underpins the study within the Transformative Paradigm lens and Participatory Research as a research design. Ten students of a particular module in a selected university in South Africa were chosen to participate in the study. They were selected using the snowballing sampling technique because the participants were under level 3 lockdown with little or no access to campus at the time of the study. Online interview via phone calls, email and WhatsApp, was conducted with the students, and the data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. The study revealed a lack of visualised physical engagement between students and their lecturers and unstable internet access and lack of the internet as the major challenges.&nbsp; The study, therefore, recommends solutions that there should be adequate provision of effective online audio-visual sessions with enough space for student-lecturer’s interactions and low-tech online sessions and content deliveries.</p> 2021-09-09T22:31:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Disability Sensitivity and Sensibility: A Nondisabled Lecturer Perspective on Inclusive Lecturing Opportunities 2021-09-20T03:51:56+00:00 Sandra Makwembere <p>Disability is a social force that arguably creates more education problems for students with disabilities than their impairments. Understanding it as a form of social oppression can lead to less exclusionary teaching and learning attitudes, beliefs, expectations and practices. Numerous studies have looked at the experiences of staff and students with disabilities as well as the experiences of teaching students with disabilities. However, more studies are needed to better understand and address disability in higher education. Nondisabled perspectives have a role to play in opposing disabling educational practices and cultures to make higher education more inclusive. Many opportunities especially exist for nondisabled lecturers to contribute to addressing the higher education barriers and discrimination which often affect students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to use a disability perspective to present my lecturing practices during the move to emergency remote teaching and learning in response to COVID-19 while working at an HDI. An autoethnographic method was used. Content analysis of my accounts exposed the exclusionary nature of my practices in terms of how they facilitated ableism and suppressed disability discourse. Recommendations are made, in light of the results, on ways to not only make higher education spaces more accommodating but counter a wider societal culture that oppresses and even seeks to eradicate the value of those who live with impairments.&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-09T22:45:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mentor-Mentee Experiences Amidst COVID-19: A Teaching Practice Case Study 2021-09-20T03:51:56+00:00 Cias T Tsotetsi Selloane A Mile <p>Preparing student teachers for the world of work is seen globally as a challenge. This research aims to explore mentors and mentees experiences in teaching practice during the COVID-19 period. In order to explore the challenge in this study, the following research question guided the paper: What are the teaching practice experiences of mentors and mentees at a school during COVID-19? The research question is a result of limited research done on the experiences of two groups during COVID-19. Informed by the realist social theory, we generated data via telephonic interviews with mentors and mentees in one school. The data was generated through semi-structured Interviews and thematic analysis was a method employed in the analysis of the data. The results present challenges experienced by mentees which, amongst others, include a feeling of inadequacy or a lack of confidence in their abilities to bring about order to the classroom and a feeling of being excluded in meetings and extra-curricular activities. On the other hand, mentors receive mentees without any prior warning or without arrangements made to accommodate them and the absence of the university officials except for assessment. Based on the results, a collaborative approach should be employed to deal with some of the challenges experienced by mentors and mentees.</p> 2021-09-10T11:04:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## COVID-19, the global education project and technology: Disrupting priorities towards rethinking education 2021-09-20T03:51:55+00:00 Charl Wolhuter Lynette Jacobs <p>This paper argues that the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic created a space to reconceptualise education and rethink priorities. Although no one will deny the devastating impact of the pandemic, humans have been able to continue with various projects, including the global education project, largely made possible through unprecedented technology advancement, as well as the uptake of technologies that advanced pre-COVID-19. In many ways, the clear distinction between human and technological (being non-human) practices has blurred to a point where the mere nature of human projects such as the global education project has become post-human. While different schools of thought on the nature of “post-human” exist, we use it to refer to what we are becoming together, a comprehension and awareness of the connectedness between humans and their natural and technological environment and the ethical concerns that come with it. COVID-19 provides an opportunity to reconsider the connectedness, complexities and dynamics of the world, and what we (humans, nature, Earth, technology) are becoming. Based on a literature survey and critical refection on the state of the global education expansion project at the time of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we suggest the following changes to the ways quantity, quality and equality in education are conceptualised. The employment of technology should be added in the conceptualisation of input quality. Flexibility, support and connectedness should be built into the process quality equation. Most importantly, ecology should also be added as a product of education, and not merely a contextual influence in education.</p> 2021-09-10T11:28:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transgender student experiences of online education during COVID-19 pandemic era in rural Eastern Cape area of South Africa: A descriptive phenomenological study 2021-09-20T03:51:55+00:00 Azwihangwisi Helen Mavhandu-Mudzusi Tshimangadzo Selina Mudau Thulile Pearl Shandu Nthomeni Dorah Ndou <p>COVID-19 affected education in many ways. As a response, various strategies were introduced to ensure students’ access to education, including online education. For most of the students, fulltime online education brought diverse challenges. This descriptive phenomenological study explored the experiences of transgender student regarding online education during the COVID-19 pandemic in Buffalo City Metro Municipality, South Africa. Data were collected by means of individual telephonic interviews with eight purposively selected transgender students using the snowballing technique. Data were thematically analysed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework for data analysis. The findings indicate that transgender students faced barriers in accessing online education, including (i) limited interaction, (ii) unconducive home environment because of stigmatisation, abuse and disruptions, and (iii) lack of access to the internet owing to the centralisation of internet access points, the unaffordability of data, unstable internet connections and an intermittent electricity supply. The findings further highlighted that transgender students face stigmatisation and abuse which hinder their learning. The situation is exacerbated by a lack of sources of income for transgender students, especially those who must make means for money to buy educational resources such as data for internet connection needed for online classes. Based on the findings, the researchers recommend continuous support for transgender students to ensure their continued engagement in online education, amidst the challenges they face. To this end, educational institutions should ensure that students have alternative means of accessing education so that those from diverse populations, settings and socioeconomic statuses are reached.</p> 2021-09-10T11:36:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transition to online learning by a teacher education program with limited 4IR affordances 2021-09-20T03:51:55+00:00 Maria Tsakeni <p>This study used the community of inquiry (CoI) framework and the affordances of Internet of things (IoT) to explore how the faculty of education of a rural campus of a university transitioned from face-to-face to online modes of instruction. In this qualitative interpretive study, data were collected through open-ended questionnaires from four purposely selected teacher educators and five final-year bachelor of education preservice teachers. Thematic content analysis techniques were used to analyze the data collected. The findings indicated the tensions experienced by the teacher educators as they negotiated the limited IoT affordances to ensure effective teaching, cognitive, and social presence in the newly formed online classrooms. Some of the tensions included the choices that were made on whether to use synchronous or asynchronous modes of instruction and the selection of effective communication modes. The teacher educators used a combination of the official learning management system (LMS) tools of the university and a social media platform as way of navigating the limited 4IR environments experienced by the preservice teachers.</p> 2021-09-10T11:51:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lecturer Autoethnographies of Adjusting to Online Student Interactions during COVID-19 2021-09-20T03:51:54+00:00 Sandra Makwembere Obert Matarirano Nobert Rangarirai Jere <p>In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic pushed South African historically disadvantaged institutions, that had not yet reached advanced levels of technology use in teaching and learning, to find immediate solutions to salvage the disrupted academic year. Interactions with students, which had predominantly been face-to-face, shifted to various online platforms for lecturers to adopt emergency remote teaching approaches. Most of the lecturers were unprepared or incapacitated to make the shift to online environment. Studies have looked at the online teaching and learning experiences of students and lecturers during the COVID-19 pandemic but very few have taken an autoethographic approach to their inquiry and situated experiences in historically disadvantaged institutions. In this article, as lecturers, we use autoethnographies to provide an account of adjusting to interacting with students online during national lockdowns at a historically disadvantaged institution. The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was applied to guide the study. This reflexive approach is valuable, as it captures professional encounters and reflections needed to understand the effects of rapid changes to teaching and learning in response to the pandemic. Given the education disparities that already existed between South African higher education institutions before COVID-19, the article contributes to the discourse on how historically disadvantaged institutions can advance higher standards of teaching and learning to serve students better. Our reflections point to the personal, technical and structural challenges of maintaining regular online interaction. Our findings show that different approaches and techniques were applied to adjust to virtual teaching and learning. As teaching and learning methodologies have the potential to ingrain social inequalities, we made recommendations on how to improve online interactions with students from historically disadvantaged contexts.</p> 2021-09-10T12:00:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A journey through digital storytelling during COVID-19 Students preparedness to use technology for learning in the language classroom 2021-09-20T03:51:54+00:00 Elma Marais <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has forced lecturers at South African universities to reconceptualise their teaching and learning activities. Universities had to embark on remote teaching to salvage the 2020 academic year. This created the opportunity to draw on students’ creative and digital skills to promote digital storytelling as a way of enhancing their learning experience. &nbsp;&nbsp;This article describes the journey of a teacher educator and a group of students registered for a language didactics module in an initial teacher education programme. Film study was traditionally presented through lively conversations in a contact session where students could exchange their perceptions and opinions regarding various aspects of film. Because of the COVID-19 lockdown this approach had to be reviewed. The lecturer in question employed digital learning competencies to transform learning through the innovative use of digital tools and resources to rethink student engagement with film. Students were invited to create digital stories. The outcome of the process not only improved their understanding of teaching film but also promoted their digital competencies and empowered them to create resources they could use in their careers.</p> 2021-09-13T19:40:53+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Making Sense of the Unknown: A Narrative Analysis of COVID-19 Stories as Told by WSU Research Students 2021-09-21T10:19:51+00:00 Alicia Van der Spuy Lakshmi Jayakrishnan <p>Storytelling is an important tool through which to make sense of life experiences. Stories can be classified as personal narratives, historical documentaries and those that inform the viewer about a specific concept or practice. These narratives can be used to promote discussion about current issues in the world. Storytelling can thus be seen as an effective learning tool for students by providing a strong foundation in “Twenty First Century Literacy” skills as well as advancing emotional intelligence and social learning. This project used storytelling to gather information regarding people’s encounters with COVID-19 and lockdown, with specific focus on the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Employing a content analysis methodology, it attempts to analyze responses to narrative inquiry interviews about the COVID-19 pandemic as conducted by students, as part of their introduction to the methodology of research.&nbsp; These responses were used to generalize findings, as well as to look at individual reactions that could bring light to, and make sense of the human experience of the pandemic within an educational context. Both negative and positive experiences were related by interviewees and students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-14T21:25:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Students’ Responses to Multi-Modal Emergency Remote Learning During COVID-19 in a South African Higher Institution 2021-09-20T03:51:53+00:00 Obert Matarirano Onke Gqokonqana Abor Yeboah <p>COVID-19 pandemic forced several higher education institutions (HEI) to operate remotely. Emergency remote teaching, using synchronous and asynchronous instruction, was adopted by several HEIs. The experiences of students with remote teaching and learning in certain situations are not fully understood, thus need to be explored. This study explored the experiences of students with the emergency remote teaching and learning practices adopted at a selected HEI in South Africa. A cross-sectional and self-administered survey was used to gather data from 243 conveniently sampled returning students within the Department of Accounting and Finance. Descriptive statistics were used to make sense of the collected data. The study found that students preferred a face-to-face approach to learning to remote learning. The respondents underscored insufficient data, unstable network connection, unconducive home environments and loneliness as deterrents to effective remote learning. Despite these negative experiences, students appreciated the flexibility and convenience of recorded video lectures and acknowledged the compassion and support of lecturers during remote learning. An understanding of the experiences of students during remote learning provides a basis for future teaching plans, which would improve students' learning experiences. In its current format and students living in their home environments, remote learning greatly diminishes the chances of success for most students. Lecturers need to be compassionate and considerate of student’s struggles in their plans for remote teaching and learning as well as online learning.</p> 2021-09-15T12:28:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Transformative Methodology: Expository Study of Teaching English as the Second Language Acquisition 2021-09-20T03:51:53+00:00 Jacob Tshepang Moloi Emmanuel Tobi Adegoriolu <p>The significance of language as a science in the educational sector has continued to play a critical role in terms of teaching and learning. However, due to inequalities exposed severely by the Covid-19 pandemic, the teaching of English as the second language acquisition to foreign speakers; is adversely affected. Therefore, the use of transformative methodology as the teaching strategy is explored to determine the most suitable methodology of teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic. The study utilizes Participatory Action Research as the approach to explore the efficacy of transformative methodology; this approach is embedded in the paradigmatic principles of constructivism as the lens of qualitative methodology.&nbsp; Besides, the data is analysed using Critical Discourse Analysis post the generation of it using observations and semi-structured interviews (free attitudinal interviews). The paper demonstrates the prospects of using transformative methodology as the appropriate use of pedagogical strategy for English as the second language acquisition, it also suggests efficient but costly measures required to be implemented by the universities for the use of the transformative methodology.</p> 2021-09-17T09:25:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##