Research in Social Sciences and Technology <p><em><strong>Research in Social Sciences and Technology (RESSAT)</strong></em> is an international journal that aims to publish scholarly work in the social sciences, technology, and their impact on education. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, editorials, and book reviews.</p> <p>&nbsp;The RESSAT is an open access journal, with free access for each visitor. The journal uses an online submission system to ensure the international visibility and the rigid peer review process.&nbsp;</p> <p>The overarching goal of the journal is to disseminate origianl research findings that make significant contributions to different areas of social sciences and technology with emphasis on education. The aim of the journal is to promote the work of academic researchers in social sciences, education and technology.</p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/btarman/2018_v3_issue_31.png" width="266" height="385"></p> <p>The topics related to this journal include but are not limited to:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><em>General Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>History</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Geography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Philosophy</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Law&nbsp;</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Economic</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Political Science</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Sociology. criminology. demography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Communication and Culture</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Educational Assessment and Evaluation</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Intercultural Communication</em></li> <li class="show"><em>International and Comparative Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Transnationalism in Education</em></li> </ul> Research in Social Sciences and Technology- OpenED Network en-US Research in Social Sciences and Technology 2468-6891 <p>This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> An Analysis of Students’ Mathematical Curiosity in Online Learning Viewed from Academic Level and Gender <p>Online learning affects students' curiosity, so it is important to develop students' curiosity during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze students' curiosity about online learning. This study was conducted in the Department of Mathematics Education during the odd semester 2021/2022 with 106 students in three different courses. The research instrument was a mathematical curiosity questionnaire administered to students using the Google Documents application. The data analysis technique used was descriptive analysis. The results showed that the general curiosity of the students is classified as "strong" with a percentage of 75.17%. Academically, students with low, medium and high curiosity are considered strong with percentages of 74.07 percent, 76.5 percent and 75.12 percent. Measured by gender differences, the proportion of male and female students is 76.43 and 77.5 percent. Data analysis showed that in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic, curiosity about learning mathematics does not depend on the academic level of online learning or on gender differences. The effect of the result that the students during the Covid-19 pandemic, mathematical curiosity is still used in online learning and should be improved. This research contributes to the growing body of knowledge on mathematical learning in the digital age and offers practical recommendations for fostering mathematical curiosity in online.&nbsp;</p> Zetriuslita Zetriuslita Sitti Fithriani Saleh Baharullah Baharullah Laelasari Laelasari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 9 2 1 12 10.46303/ressat.2024.22 The Difference in Parental Financial Socialisation Across Parental Education Level <p>Around the world, parental financial socialization now heavily depends on the educational attainment of the parents. This study looked into how parental financial socialization varied depending on the educational attainment of the parents. Parental financial behavior, financial monitoring, financial discussion, financial communication, and financial teaching were used as metrics for measuring parental financial socialization. In this study, a quantitative research approach was used. Since Fetakgomo Tubatse and Intsika Yethu municipalities are the most rural and low-income locations in South Africa, data were gathered through the use of a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis techniques included Tukey HSD test, Welch robust test, Levene's test, descriptive statistics, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The results demonstrated that parental financial socialization varies significantly depending on the educational attainment of the parents. Therefore, financial socialization is more common among parents who have greater education levels than it is among those who have lower education levels. This study's findings are the first to show that parental financial socialization varies significantly depending on the educational attainment of the parents. This study suggests that more research be done on the variations in parental financial socialization across parental educational levels in other areas. Additionally, it is advised that the South African government develop initiatives aimed at addressing and raising parental education levels because research indicates that parents who have completed more education are more likely to participate in financial socialization, which affects young adults' financial literacy and well-being.&nbsp;</p> Adam Ndou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 9 2 13 30 10.46303/ressat.2024.23 Adopting Learner-Centred Pedagogy to Develop Business Studies Learners' Problem-Solving and Creative Thinking Skills in Selected Schools in South Africa <p>The need for problem-solving and creative thinking skills to be taught well in business studies classrooms can never be overemphasised due to the complexity of the problems and challenges faced by businesses in the 21st-century business environment. Teachers are, therefore, required to adopt pedagogies that would enable learners to acquire problem-solving and creative thinking skills to operate effectively in the new business environment. This study investigates business studies teachers' adoption of learner-centred pedagogy to nurture learners' problem-solving and creative thinking skills. This qualitative study is positioned within the interpretive paradigm. An exploratory case study was employed as a research design. Progressive Learning Theory was adopted as the lens of the study. Semi-structured interviews and classroom observations were used to collect data from six business studies teachers who were sampled purposefully from six secondary schools in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. The raw data was analysed thematically. It was found that most teachers managed to adopt learner-centred pedagogy and learning activities that promoted the acquisition of problem-solving and creative thinking skills. The study concluded that business studies teachers are now embracing learner-centred pedagogy in their classrooms, and they understand the importance of teaching learners to equip them with skills that are demanded by the 21st-century business environment. Despite these findings, it is still recommended that workshops and short learning courses be offered to teachers to equip them with pedagogical skills that would help them to engrain and sustain learner-centred pedagogy in their instructional practices.&nbsp;</p> Nduduzo Brian Gcabashe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 9 2 31 50 10.46303/ressat.2024.24 A Quantitative Study Examining the Relationship Between Parental Socioeconomic Status, Body Image, Peer Influence, and Self-esteem Among Adolescents <p>People with high self-esteem are better able to take delight in life's little pleasures, handle difficult situations, overcome challenges, establish lasting relationships, and strengthen their weaknesses. This study examined socioeconomic status, body image, and peer influence on self-esteem among in-school adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design of the correlational type was used during the investigation. This study employed a multi-stage sampling technique. Three hundred and forty-five in-school adolescents made the study sample. Data was collected using reliable instruments: (Peer Influence Scale α = .78; Body image scale α =0.83; Parental Socioeconomic Status Scale α =0.89; Self-Esteem Inventory α=.71). From the results, socioeconomic status (r = .533; p.&lt;05), body image (r =. 577; p.&lt;05), and peer influence (r = .331; p.&lt;05) had a significant relationship with (self-esteem). Body Image made the most significant contribution (β = .371; t = 7.555; p&lt;0.05) followed by Peer influence (β = .316; t = 8.112; p&lt;0.05) and Socioeconomic status (β = .312; t = 6.374; p&lt;0.05). The study underscores the need for counseling and orientation programs for adolescents in all ramifications; this will help ease the psychological strain that could hamper their self-esteem.</p> Adewuyi Omoponle Habeeb Adesegun Olayide Odutayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 9 2 51 71 10.46303/ressat.2024.25 Exploring Service Accessibility and Quality for Differently-Abled Students: A Qualitative Analysis at a South African University of Technology <p>This qualitative study investigates the service experiences of differently-abled students within the Financial Aid Department of a prominent South African University of Technology. Employing a semi-structured interview schedule aligned with the Service Quality model (SERVQUAL), five dimensions—tangibles, assurance, empathy, reliability, and responsiveness—are explored. The study unveils the significant challenges students face, including issues related to the location and accessibility of the department, staff approachability, and the reliability of communication systems. The discussion section draws on relevant literature to synthesise the findings, providing comprehensive insights into the intricacies of service delivery for differently-abled students. The study concludes with actionable recommendations for enhancing service quality and inclusivity, addressing the unique needs of this student demographic in the evolving landscape of South African higher education.&nbsp;</p> Agendri Naidoo Jamila Khatoon Adam Francis Akpa-Inyang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 9 2 72 89 10.46303/ressat.2024.26 Bahraini Teachers’ Perceptions on the Challenges of Remote Teaching for Autistic Children <p>This research aims to understand how teachers of autistic children responded to teaching remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. Six teachers who work in an autism centre took part in face-to-face semi-structured interviews in the Kingdom of Bahrain on their perspectives of teaching autistic children remotely and how their mothers adapted to this mode of teaching. The teachers reported that the unprecedented change was challenging for autistic children and their families, but especially for mothers, who were in all cases, the primary caretakers. The effectiveness of remote teaching depended on the cooperation and the willingness of the mother and child to engage in the process. Overall, teachers agreed that in comparison to face-to-face teaching, remote teaching was not a positive experience.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Wid Hussain Daghustani Alison MacKenzie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 9 2 90 108 10.46303/ressat.2024.27 Investigation into the Challenges Experienced by School Management Teams (SMTs) Post-Pandemic in Rural High Schools in the Mopani-West Education District <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the challenges faced by SMTs in dealing with poor academic performance in the Mopani-West District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Studies have indicated that schools in rural areas fail to meet their full potential due to a combination of factors including insufficient instructional resources, shortage of qualified educators, insufficient infrastructure, and poverty and inequality. The study adopted a qualitative approach following an interpretative case study design. Using purposive sampling a total of 18 participants, comprising six principals, six departmental heads, and six learners who met the research criteria were selected. The study sample included one principal, one departmental head, and one learner from each of these six schools in the Mopani-West District. Three schools from the sample were identified as high-performing, while the other three were identified as underperforming. Data were elicited using semi-structured interviews, followed by thematic data analysis to unveil rich narratives and patterns within the research inquiries. The findings of the study revealed that resource scarcity in schools significantly hampered the quality of education. Issues such as insufficient teaching materials, a shortage of teachers, and the absence of technology create stark disparities between less and more privileged schools. The study also highlighted the impact of inadequate infrastructure on learning as one of the pressing concerns that compromise quality teaching and learning. Recommendations were made accordingly.</p> Nyiko Amos Sibuyi Mapule Yvonne Segooa Habasisa Vincent Molise Ngwako Solomon Modiba Thinavhudzulo Mafumo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 9 2 109 132 10.46303/ressat.2024.28 The 4Rs Framework: Creating A Synergy to Support the Implementation of English Education for Sustainable Development in Rwanda <p>Rwanda started teaching English to support sustainable development and deliver the five key pillars that will help Rwandans transition from their existing way of life to the society they all desire and are happy to be a part of. As a follow-up to the Sustainable Development Goals and the Berlin Declaration on Education for Sustainable Development, the government ensured the standardisation and teaching of English. In order to assist the implementation of English teaching nationally, the theoretical paper explains how the 4Rs Framework—relationship-building, recognition, responsibilities, and reciprocity—combine to generate synergy among many stakeholders and cross-sectoral collaboration. The study presents literature on Rwanda's Vision 2050, education for sustainable development, and teaching using English as a medium of communication. It is founded on a critical literature review. The article discusses options for national transformation while emphasising the importance of locally rooted collaboration. The 4Rs technique is intended to foster discussion among important players about the issues and problems facing the area of education in emergencies rather than serving as a rigid theoretical framework. The study shows the connections between and tensions among the various "Rs," as well as the efficiency of the 4R dimensions in encouraging the teaching of English. The study considered ways to get beyond the approach's drawbacks and difficulties to support sustainable schooling in Rwanda. This framework encourages the creation of a synergistic educational ecosystem that equips students with the information, skills, and attitudes required to actively participate in Rwanda's path to sustainable development.</p> Nowell Chidakwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 9 2 133 155 10.46303/ressat.2024.29 Funding Opera in the Changing Landscape: Should Opera Be Funded or Accepted as a Fading Culture in South Africa? <p>Opera is considered a significant part of cultural heritage in many societies. In the South African context, opera has a rich history and has contributed to the development of various art forms. Opera has continued to play a significant role in preserving and promoting cultural diversity in South Africa. Opera production contribute to the economy by creating jobs for artists, musicians, technicians, and other professionals. Additionally, opera events can attract tourism and boost local economies. Public funding for opera may be seen as an investment with economic returns. The purpose of this article is to examine the funding of opera in South Africa against the backdrop of a changing cultural landscape. It aims to investigate whether opera should continue to receive funding or if it should be accepted as a fading cultural form. Employing a qualitative approach, ten participants, including opera company managers and artists, share their perspectives through semi-structured interviews. Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis method reveals key themes of financial viability, challenges, and opportunities. Findings were presented in themes and supported by quotes from research participants. Opera company managers and artists shared valuable insights into financial viability, challenges, and opportunities. Strategic collaborations, revenue diversification, and the pivotal role of public funding emerged as central themes. The findings shed light on the adaptive measures undertaken by stakeholders in response to the changing cultural and financial climate. The conclusion synthesises the key findings, emphasising the resilience of South African opera in the face of funding challenges. It underscores the importance of balancing financial support and cultural acceptance for sustained vitality. The study contributes to ongoing discussions on the intersection of funding, cultural relevance, and the future of opera in South Africa.&nbsp;</p> Sakhiseni Joseph Yende ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 9 2 156 175 10.46303/ressat.2024.30 Challenges in Equipping Learners for the Fourth Industrial Revolution: School Leaders’ and Teachers’ Powerlessness <p>The work landscape is evolving with the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), potentially rendering current jobs obsolete and necessitating new skills or retraining of existing occupations for future employment. This revolution is disrupting nearly every sector, including education, highlighting the need for education to address issues like unemployment, poverty, and inequality. However, to adequately prepare learners, this can only be achieved with sufficient material and human resources. Understanding these dynamics is crucial in determining whether school leaders and teachers possess the power or autonomy to develop the necessary knowledge, skills, and competencies to empower learners for the 4IR. Power, the ability to achieve organizational objectives, is essential for school leaders and teachers responsible for information and communication technologies in schools to acquire the resources and competencies needed for the 4IR. Drawing on critical theory, this qualitative study explores how school leaders and teachers experience powerlessness due to the challenges they encounter in preparing learners for the 4IR. Semi-structured interviews facilitated participants’ reflections and meaning-making of their experiences in this regard. The critical analysis of data yielded themes that underscore the complexities of preparing learners for the 4IR in underserved contexts ill-equipped for such endeavours: time constraints; teacher uncertainty; insufficient infrastructure, incapacitating influence of powerful top management; and detrimental control of district circuits. Participants felt constrained within their job descriptions, lacked the freedom to exert authority over their work, and faced obstacles in making independent decisions and implementing necessary changes.&nbsp;</p> Ntombenhle Sylvia Mlangeni Sadi Seyama-Mokhaneli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 9 2 176 195 10.46303/ressat.2024.31 Unlocking the Potential of Facebook as a Versatile Platform for Knowledge Sharing <p>Social network sites, most notably Facebook, have fundamentally transformed the way information is transferred, received, and shared by individuals and organisations. This article explores the diverse contexts in which Facebook is utilised as a knowledge-sharing instrument, along with the key challenges encountered in adopting Facebook as a knowledge-sharing instrument. It also indicates the gaps in adopting Facebook as a knowledge-sharing instrument. In a systematic literature review, 400 articles accomplishing the research objectives were identified. The findings revealed that Facebook can be used in different contexts. Greater awareness of Facebook’s versatility as a platform for knowledge sharing across various domains is recommended. This article also advises that the challenges related to cost, time investment and technical expertise be addressed, and emphasises the need for education and training. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Prince Enwereji Annelien Adriana van Rooyen Ilse Morgan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-25 2024-05-25 9 2 196 224 10.46303/ressat.2024.32 Teachers’ Experiences on the Implementation of COVID-19 Protocols Amidst the Pandemic in Mmashadi Circuit of the Sekhukhune District <p>The global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic extended to the education sector in South Africa, prompting the implementation of preventative measures by the National Coronavirus Command Council. These COVID-19 protocols included the wearing of face masks or face shields, ensuring maximum ventilation, washing of hands, and school attendance routines to deal with overcrowded classrooms, among others. This study aimed to delve into the implementation of COVID-19 protocols in schools, focusing on the strategies utilised and the challenges teachers encountered. Employing a qualitative research methodology within a case study framework, the study involved eight teachers (five male and three female) from four schools in the Sekhukhune District, selected through purposive sampling. Data were elicited through semi-structured interviews to gain a thorough understanding of the phenomenon and coded for anonymity purposes. Aligned with the goal of the study, thematic data analysis was adopted for analysing the data. The findings revealed that teachers faced significant challenges in balancing their responsibilities in implementing COVID-19 protocols alongside making up for lost teaching time. However, alternative strategies were employed by teachers to mitigate this loss including the deployment of assistant teachers to support protocol and assist students with homework, additional security personnel to help guard and control unnecessary school visits, and for teachers to provide supplementary notes and embark on online learning. Recommendations include the increased deployment of support personnel, increased community involvement, training teachers to use online learning platforms, and for the Department of Basic Education to develop a guidance sheet to assist teachers in navigating the challenges of teaching during a pandemic.</p> Thapelo Ephraim Lengwadi Habasisa Vincent Molise Mapule Yvonne Segooa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 9 2 225 245 10.46303/ressat.2024.33 The Impact of the Internship Programme on Students in A Selected Public Higher Institution in The Eastern Cape, South Africa <p>It is important to note from the outset that the duty of preparing students for careers rests with the educational community.&nbsp; Internship before graduation appears to offer students experiential learning, better opportunities for employment and better knowledge of real work environments. The institutions benefit by obtaining more resources at a lower expense as well as a chance to assess whether the intern will fit in well with the team and the role. The majority of students graduate from university or college and struggle to find jobs due to lack of experience and exposure to the working environment. The study sought to assess the effect of internship on students in public institutions. The study used a qualitative research approach, through semi-structured interviews, and respondents were approached through purposive sampling technique. The results of the study show that internships are favourable to students, universities, organisations and&nbsp; result in more job offers and quicker employability of interns. It further states that internships involve some investigation into the characteristics of students who will be employed by institutions in future through internship programmes. Finally, the study revealed that internships provide better opportunities for graduates and unemployed students by exposing them to&nbsp; their chosen field, either in unpaid or paid internship programmes. The study recommends that universities must create more internships to ensure that students are equipped with skills and gain positive and&nbsp; required experience in field work. &nbsp;</p> Maxhobandile Ndamase Yusuf Lukman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 9 2 246 260 10.46303/ressat.2024.34 Examining the challenges of tertiary teaching and learning in the accounting discipline within KwaZulu-Natal South Africa <p>Financial accounting poses significant challenges for students at tertiary institutions, often resulting in failure, extended graduation timelines, or dropouts, particularly in their first year of study. This study aimed to identify the obstacles encountered in teaching and learning accounting education within South African universities. The research, which employed a qualitative approach, focused on understanding the challenges faced by students in mastering financial accounting at the university level and the underlying causes. Twenty accounting learners from four public tertiary institutions in KwaZulu-Natal were interviewed using open-ended, structured questions via MS Teams. Results highlighted several key themes, including the transition from high school to university, learning strategies and the influence of high school accounting. Challenges identified encompassed the difficult nature of the subject, a shortage of qualified accounting educators, insufficient support staff, poor infrastructure conditions, inadequate classroom facilities and the absence of practical training environments. This study contributes to financial accounting higher education in South Africa by introducing a novel methodological approach, utilising a textual collage to represent data. By merging visual and language-based approaches, the collage offers a fresh perspective on educational research in accounting. Moreover, it contributes to the academic literature within the discipline, aiming to mitigate student dropout rates and prolonged graduation timelines in accounting programmes. Overall, this research endeavours to enhance pedagogical practices and support mechanisms within accounting education, fostering a conducive learning environment for students.</p> Lungani Makhathini Jamila Adam Francis Akpa-Inyang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 9 2 261 280 10.46303/ressat.2024.35