Research in Social Sciences and Technology <p><em><strong>Research in Social Sciences and Technology (RESSAT)</strong></em> is an international journal that aims to publish scholarly work in the social sciences, technology, and their impact on education. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, editorials, and book reviews.</p> <p>&nbsp;The RESSAT is an open access journal, with free access for each visitor. The journal uses an online submission system to ensure the international visibility and the rigid peer review process.&nbsp;</p> <p>The overarching goal of the journal is to disseminate origianl research findings that make significant contributions to different areas of social sciences and technology with emphasis on education. The aim of the journal is to promote the work of academic researchers in social sciences, education and technology.</p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope</strong></p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/btarman/2018_v3_issue_31.png" width="266" height="385"></p> <p>The topics related to this journal include but are not limited to:</p> <ul> <li class="show"><em>General Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>History</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Geography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Philosophy</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Law&nbsp;</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Economic</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Political Science</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Sociology. criminology. demography</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Communication and Culture</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Educational Assessment and Evaluation</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Intercultural Communication</em></li> <li class="show"><em>International and Comparative Education</em></li> <li class="show"><em>Transnationalism in Education</em></li> </ul> en-US <p>This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> (Bulent Tarman) (IT Specialist) Sun, 04 Feb 2024 15:09:10 +0300 OJS 60 Enhancing Student Learning Through #DigitalPowerups, “Pushed me to be Creative”: Student Discussions in Environmental Sociology Course <div class=""> <div class=""><span class="">The use of #digitalpowerups is a technique that involves associating keywords with prompts in online discussion forums, which enables students to have more choice and voice. These powerups not only help structure responses but also enrich discussions and develop academic skills necessary for online assignments. The approach leverages the social media interaction space of discussion forums by introducing hashtags that remind students of the prompt being addressed and indicate the level of Bloom's being engaged. By using the powerups, students can engage in mid-levels and higher-order levels of Bloom's, along with the lower levels that they typically engage in based on the design and facilitation of the discussion. Students typically participate in the lower levels of Bloom's taxonomy (#remember, #understand) due to the way the discussion is structured and facilitated. However, the use of #digitalpowerups encourages students to move beyond these levels and engage in mid-levels (#apply, #analyze, #evaluate) and higher-order levels (#create, #connect) during discussions.The powerups also scaffold or frame student responses with habits of mind skills. This article examines how the #digitalpowerups strategy supports learning in a virtual community for Environmental Concerns in the Environmental Sociology Course through content analysis of student discussion postings.&nbsp;The primary data (total of 375 postings) were collected from the Environmental Sociology Class throughout the following academic years: Fall 2020 (96 postings), Fall 2021 (67 postings), Spring 2022 (92 postings) and Spring 2023 (120 postings).&nbsp;</span></div> </div> <div class="">&nbsp;</div> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mehmet Soyer, Mehmet Fatih Yigit, Sebahattin Ziyanak, Bishal Bhakta Kasu, Travis Thurston, Jaliyah Suggs ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 03 Feb 2024 23:38:47 +0300 Applying Problem Solving Approach in Teaching Addition and Subtraction Word Problems in Diverse Grade 3 Classrooms <p>Word problem solving is an approach that can increase knowledge, improve performance and develop learners’ critical thinking skills that can assist them in solving mathematical and real-life problems. This study examined the effectiveness of using a word problem solving approach to improve Grade 3 learners’ performance when learning addition and subtraction. The study employed this hypothesis to test the difference between the experimental and control groups and between the pre-test and post-test with learners in diverse classrooms solving addition and subtraction word problems. A pre-test-intervention-post-test research design was used to collect the data. Baseline lesson observations and unstructured interviews were conducted to understand the effectiveness of the problem solving approach in teaching number concepts, problems, addition and subtraction. The results of the study revealed a significant difference between the experimental and comparison groups when solving addition and subtraction word problems. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the pre-test and the post-test in the experimental group. It was concluded that word problems could be taught by following steps for problem solving and equipping learners with essential reading skills to help them comprehend what they are reading. The interviews showed that teachers do not have enough time for learners who experience learning challenges and reading in particular in pursuit of covering the curriculum. Learners in the foundation phase must be taught money problems and problem-solving skills to acquire knowledge to be used in higher grades and real-life situations.</p> Tinyiko Florence Sambo, Tšhegofatšo Phuti Makgakga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 04 Feb 2024 11:21:07 +0300 Mathematics Education Lecturers’ Experiences of a Virtual Writing Retreat and its Impact on Publication Output <p>Departmental writing retreats for academics in higher education are one of the strategies used to enhance publication outputs and information sharing as well as the development of research discourse. Using a collaborative autoethnographic reflexivity approach, the aims of this consolidative analysis were to identify the attributes that the participants (seven Mathematics Education researchers) regarded as effective in the online writing retreat and examine the components of the writing retreat that facilitated publication output. This paper employs Wenger’s Community of Practice as the theoretical frame to critically evaluate reflective experiences from the online writing retreats. Fairclough’s Critical Discourse Analysis was used to analyse reflective experiences. The analysis unearthed many personal research needs and some of the key elements of the writing retreat that were regarded as conducive to fast tracking and advancing publication outputs. The elements I focus on in this paper are protected quality time and space to write; formation of a community of practice and attending to reviewers’ post-review comments. The contention is that researchers can achieve greater publication outputs for their departments and organisations during the writing retreats, particularly when provided with critical and formative feedback on their writing. Further research should be conducted to explore and examine researchers’ experiences of attending the writing retreats, especially using online platforms, as well as understanding the elements of writing retreats that advance the publication outcomes.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Hlamulo Wiseman Mbhiza ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 04 Feb 2024 15:07:14 +0300 Introducing a Supportive Framework to Address Students’ Misconceptions and Difficulties in the Learning Mathematical Proof Techniques: A Case of Debark University in Ethiopia <p>This research article is about "Introducing a Supportive Framework to Address Students' Misconceptions and Difficulties in Learning Mathematical proof techniques (MPT): A Case of Debark University”.&nbsp; This study aims to develop, introduce, and implement a supportive framework to overcome students’ misconceptions and difficulties in MPT. The framework, named IR<sup>2</sup>CP<sup>2</sup>CE, was developed, introduced, and implemented at Debark University in Ethiopia using various data-gathering instruments such as questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and document analysis from students and instructors. The study collected data over four months, including the implementation of a supportive framework using mixed, quasi-experimental, and pragmatism research approaches, designs, and paradigms respectively. The internal reliability of the data-gathering instruments was interpreted using Cronbach’s coefficient, Spearman-Brown, Spearman correlations, Kuder-Richardson 20 and 21, and difficulty and discrimination indices. The results showed that the implementation of the supportive framework led to significant improvements in students’ academic performance in MPT, regardless of factors such as gender, academic year category, and preliminary knowledge and proving skills. This study recommends additional imperatives for practice and future research.&nbsp;</p> Aschale Moges Belay, France Machaba, Tšhegofatšo Phuti Makgakga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 09 Feb 2024 20:47:10 +0300 The impact of school closures on learners’ mental health in the context of COVID-19 in the City of Cape Town <p>This paper explores the negative impact of the shutdown of contact-based learning on learners’ mental health as a result of COVID-19 and provides recommendations to promote learners’ mental health during and post COVID-19. A qualitative research method was used to guide the collection and analysis of the data. Data was collected from a sample of 20 learners from Cape Town and analysed through thematic analysis. The study findings revealed that with the shutdown of contact-based learning as one of the COVID-19 containment measures by the government learners experienced social anxiety disorder and sleeping disorder. Youth policymakers need to design interventions that promote mental health in after-school programmes implemented by qualified youth workers and social workers. Youth workers should take the courses of action in a non-formal education to promote youth mental health.</p> Thulani Andrew Chauke, Olusegun Samson Obadire ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 14 Feb 2024 12:29:16 +0300 Exploring the Impact of E-Learning Strategies on Enhancing Workplace English Competence at an Open Distance E-Learning (ODeL) University in South Africa <p>This study explores the implementation of e-learning strategies to enhance workplace English competence. The focus is on a semester module that consists of approximately 10,000 first-year university students in an ODeL context in South Africa. The study’s objective was to collect data and contribute to the field of language learning in the workplace. Guided by the TPACK theory, the investigation employed qualitative research methods, incorporating open-ended evaluation questions and an observation schedule. The instruments allowed for a deep exploration of students’ perspectives and experiences with e-learning strategies, specifically their impact on workplace English competence. The results of the study highlighted the positive effects of e-learning strategies on enhancing workplace English competence. Participants reported improved language skills, increased confidence in communication, and an enhanced ability to meet workplace language requirements. In addition, the findings revealed the significance of interactive multimedia materials, collaborative learning activities, and personalised feedback as effective pedagogical approaches in the module. The contributions of this study lie in its exploration and validation of e-learning strategies for the enhancement of workplace English competence at a distance learning university.</p> Kgabo Bridget Maphoto, Zuleika Suliman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 17 Feb 2024 19:14:14 +0300 The Challenges Entry-Level Mathematics Teachers Face in Conducting Blended Teaching <p>In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on online teaching and learning. Teaching mathematics in the fourth industrial revolution offers entry-level mathematics teachers formidable challenges. Despite using various teaching aids in explaining the learning area, entry-level mathematics teachers, those with zero to three years of teaching experience, have experienced challenges in blended teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Such challenges could support the preconceived notion identified by others that the field of learning (mathematics) is difficult. This paper hinged on constructivist epistemology and investigated the challenges that entry-level mathematics teachers face in conducting blended teaching in the Sedibeng West District of Gauteng Province in the Republic of South Africa. Eight entry-level mathematics teachers were purposely sampled from four selected schools that participated in the article. This article adopted a case study design and responses were analysed thematically. The focus group interviews were used as tools to collect data in this study. The study revealed a variety of perceptions that entry-level mathematics teachers shared about the impact of blended teaching in mathematics learning. These included, but were not limited to, the use of teaching programs or software, the effects of load shedding and blended teaching challenges related to learners' performance and behaviour. The results of this study could provide program developers, subject advisors, school principals with other members of the management team, and mathematics teachers to support the entry-level mathematics teacher's confidence, sense of future and communication skills, as well as foster multigenerational connections in blended teaching.&nbsp;</p> Gilbert Kereng Pule, Lukholo Raxangana ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Feb 2024 11:42:43 +0300 Chronicling the Experiences of Mathematics Learners and Teachers on the Usage of Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) in Enhancing Learners’ Academic Performance <p>South Africa has been battling with the poor performance of learners in Mathematics for a long time, with the Eastern Cape province being the worst-performing province. The Department of Education and other educational stakeholders have embarked on a journey of searching for solutions. Some of these include the use of Information communication technologies (ICT), code switching, intervention programs (IP) and the use of different learners centered approach to teach Mathematics, to mention a few. Hence, this present study investigated how the guided discovery learning strategy can be used to enhance the performance of Grade 10 learners in Amathole West district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Underpinned by an interpretivist paradigm and qualitative research approach, the study employed a participatory action research. A convenient sampling technique was used to select 19 Grade 10 Mathematics learners and 2 Mathematics teachers at a rural school in Eastern Cape Province. Data were collected using interviews, observations, and document reviews and these data were analysed using thematic analysis. Research findings revealed that while some factors such as evaluation methods, time limitations, and insufficient motivation may impede the optimal implementation of Guided Discovery Learning, this instructional strategy is beneficial in the cultivation of critical thinking and problem-solving abilities, which in turn enhances mathematics learners’ academic performance. Based on the findings, it was recommended that mathematics teachers should promote the utilisation of technology and multimedia resources to support learners in their visualisation and exploration of mathematical concepts in the use of GDL to enhance mathematics learners’ performance. &nbsp;</p> Zizipho Mabhoza, Babawande Emmanuel Olawale ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 20 Feb 2024 11:53:47 +0300 Data-Driven Insights: A Decade of Sol Plaatje University's Research Journey and Development <p>This paper analyses Sol Plaatje University's (SPU) progress on increased research activities. The paper employs bibliometric analysis review method to demonstrate the university's transition from being a predominantly teaching-focused to a more research-oriented institution. A novel, data-driven methodology is also adopted in this paper, to identify and examine SPU’s research niche through publications. This paper’s data were collected from the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The paper’s findings reveal that there was an overall significant increase in research outputs, observable on yearly basis for a decade (2014 to 2023). The yearly increase in research output is recorded from diverse research fields, including machine learning, cryptography, environmental research, and public health. Findings further reveal that SPU has built its international research collaborations within the African and European continents. This paper’s findings contribute to literature on higher education development by offering insights into how newly established universities can transition from a teaching-centric focus to becoming research-active. This paper revealed the importance of strategic planning, interdisciplinary research, and international collaboration in the development of a vibrant research environment. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Moeketsi Mosia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 24 Feb 2024 01:26:58 +0300 Rural primary school principals’ leadership strategies for ICT integration <p>This paper explored the factors influencing the leadership strategies of school principals in rural primary schools regarding the integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the process of teaching and learning in their schools. School principals are responsible for ensuring that there is ICTs integration in their schools’ teaching and learning processes. Embedded within the theory of learning-centred leadership (LCL), school principals have a responsibility to lead, foster, manage, and support the learning process for teachers and learners in their schools. Thus, school principals need to be well acquainted with innovative technologies for teaching and learning amidst the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), which is global, complex, and fast-paced, to lead learning through ICT integration. Underpinned by the interpretive qualitative approach and using a multiple case study as a research design, this study generated data from three selected South African rural primary schools through face-to-face interviews with the three school principals. Data were analysed thematically. Findings revealed that school principals’ leadership strategies are influenced by their attitudes towards ICT integration into teaching and learning, their exposure to ICT workshops, and their own judgements of their abilities in using ICT. The paper recommends customised in-service training for school principals and teachers to alter and improve their exposure to, attitudes, perceptions toward ICT integration in teaching and learning.</p> Buhle Stella Nhlumayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 24 Feb 2024 01:50:51 +0300 Using a Blended Learning Approach to Encourage Course Interaction in a First-Year Business Communication Module <p>The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness of blended learning in encouraging course interaction amongst first-year students studying a business communication module. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the increased use of blended learning as a teaching approach to encourage learning regardless of the location. Existing research on blended learning suggests its value in promoting increased student engagement, ultimately contributing to positive educational outcomes. Data was collected through a cross-sectional survey whereby a questionnaire was distributed to the respondents using Google Forms. Data was analysed on the same platform. Cross-tabulation was used to understand the relationships between factors in participants’ responses to the questions. Results indicate that blended learning successfully drives course interaction because the combination of class-based and online engagement positively impacts how likely students are to engage in course content. This paper makes a valuable contribution in the form of underscoring a pressing need for research that is aimed at understanding how blended learning shapes the experiences students have with their modules, as well as how these factors may shape current practices in blended learning. Most students indicated that they would recommend blended learning as it increased participation and engagement with their course content. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Zizipho Mdletye, Sam Erevbenagie Usadolo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 24 Feb 2024 02:09:34 +0300 The Impact of ICT Adoption in Enhancing Teaching and Learning in Primary Schools of Amathole East District, Eastern Cape <p>This study examines how information and communication technology (ICT) impacts the schooling environment within the primary sector in South Africa's Eastern Cape Province's Amathole East District. ICT adoption in education can fully modify the ways that instruction and learning are given to students, but it also comes with obstacles, especially in the rural primary schools in the Amathole East District. This research intends to shed light on the current ICT status adoption of Amathole East District's primary schools. Three primary schools were chosen, and three research participants from each school were chosen using the purposive sample technique. Data were gathered through focus groups and in-person interviews. The acquired data were analyzed and presented using a thematic approach. It was revealed as the findings that while teachers were willing to embrace ICTs into teaching and learning and had a good attitude toward technology adoption, they needed the necessary ICT competencies. Furthermore, several challenges and barriers were identified, and these included inadequate ICT infrastructure, a shortage of teacher training in technology integration and a lack of access to ICT tools. The study concludes that teacher training programs be expanded, invest in infrastructure development, and develop a comprehensive ICT policy framework. Taking the research's findings into account, the research offers practical recommendations in enhancing ICT adoption, investing in infrastructure development, expanding teacher development opportunities, to formulating a comprehensive ICT strategy framework so that schools are ready to run virtually in the event of another pandemic related to COVID-19.</p> Bafundi Zealous Mapisa, Bulelwa Makena ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 29 Feb 2024 12:23:16 +0300 ICT Integration in a Multigrade Context: Exploring Primary School Teachers Experiences <p>Technology offers pedagogical affordances that can transform teaching and learning in multigrade classrooms to assist in the process of teaching and learning. However, it is challenging for teachers to effectively integrate technology into their classrooms, given the complex and dynamic multigrade context. The technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) model was a lens through which to explore teachers’ experiences in ICT integration in their multigrade classrooms in selected primary schools in South Africa. A case study design guided this qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve teachers thematic analysis was used to analyse data. The findings revealed that access to ICT equipment for teachers and students is crucial. This study has found that generally, it is difficult for teachers to incorporate technology into their teaching because of the caveats, such as the multigrade context and the rural location which presents issues such as lack of basic technology infrastructure, limited training on integrating technology in teaching, time, the teaching context, and support from principals. This study recommends that teachers be trained on ICT usage and given the support needed to function effectively in their multigrade context. For teachers to be digitally connected and ensure ICT integration in the teaching and learning process, they need to be equipped with relevant knowledge and skills to use technology to transform their teaching and create new opportunities for learning.</p> Matshidiso Joyce Taole ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 29 Feb 2024 12:41:01 +0300 Exploring Ubuntu Philosophy as a Foundation for Holistic School Social Work in South Africa <p>This conceptual paper examines the integration of <em>Ubuntu</em> philosophy into school social work practice in South Africa, proposing a transformative framework rooted in interconnectedness, compassion, and community. Drawing from critical social work theories, cultural humility, and restorative justice, the study explores the potential benefits of incorporating <em>Ubuntu</em> in addressing the diverse needs of students. Key findings highlight the positive impact on academic outcomes, community cohesion, and the creation of a more culturally responsive educational environment. The study emphasizes the importance of cultural competence, community engagement, and restorative practices in shaping interventions. Significantly, the study contributes to a growing body of literature on culturally responsive social work practices, providing insights that can inform transformative approaches to school social work in South Africa and potentially beyond.</p> Asanda Boboyi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 Mar 2024 21:04:10 +0300 Digital Technologies for Mathematics Learning in Rural Higher Education: Students’ Perspectives <p>The use of digital technologies is a fundamental part of being a university student. Hence, there is a growing interest in equipping students with the skills they need to thrive in a world that is full of technology and constantly changing. Moreover, the need to provide university students with the skills they need to succeed in a rapidly changing, technologically advanced society is also growing. It has become more common for students to learn mathematics using digital technologies and conventional techniques as a result of recent advancements in both the world and technology. To ensure the future of mathematics students and society for sustainability, technology, and education should collaborate. The study investigated how students felt about using digital technology to teach mathematics. This study employed a case study design and was qualitative in nature. The technology Acceptance Model was employed as the theoretical framework which explains how to encourage users to accept and utilise new digital technologies. Twenty second-year mathematics students who were specifically chosen to be information-rich participants made up the study's participant pool. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis. The findings revealed that students had a positive attitude towards embracing digital tools to learn mathematics. However, they encountered some difficulties as they were learning mathematics using digital tools.</p> Neliswa Gqoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Mar 2024 18:01:41 +0300 Queer Affirmative Practice in Africa: A Social Work Practice Model for Working with LGBTQIA+ People <p>Despite the legislation put in place by the United Nations, Africa continues to grapple with issues of monosexism and heterosexism. In fact, of the 54 African countries, 33 have criminalised queer relationships, a legacy primarily attributed to colonial rule. However, social work literature has recently introduced a culturally sensitive model for working with the LGBTQIA+ community, known as Queer affirmative action. By utilising available literature and adopting an intersectional approach, which was collected and analysed through PRISMA, this paper aims to discuss the Africanising of sexuality in Africa. It argues that it is crucial to undertake a critical analysis of the colonial legacy and its impact on queer identities. Furthermore, the article posits that social work education must incorporate knowledge of the intersection of gender, sexuality, and other identity markers to form an inclusive and comprehensive approach towards practice. An affirmative philosophy to social work practice can serve as a counterweight to all punitive and discriminatory practices. Thus, in Africa, the most effective way to improve the well-being of queer individuals is to eradicate structural forms of inequality and decriminalise same-sex consensual relationships.</p> Luvo Kasa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Mar 2024 00:39:37 +0300 Accelerating Graduate Employability through Work-Integrated Learning <p>Work integrated learning (WIL) encompasses educational experiences that merge academic knowledge and practical application in a professional setting, benefiting both students and the existing workforce. The objective of incorporating WIL into education is to foster the integration of theoretical understanding by engaging students in a combination of academic coursework and hands-on work-related activities. With the rise in unemployment, WIL appears to help organizations to get graduates that have all the attributes and skills relevant in the world or work, thereby expanding and growing their businesses ensuring greater prosperity for all concerned. The aim of this article was to assess the role Work Integrated Learning in accelerating Graduate Employability. Four WIL coordinators from different academic programmes that offer WIL as a module participated in this paper. Data was analysed using Thematic analysis, following Braun &amp; Clark steps. The study revealed a direct correlation between academic performance and practical application in the professional setting. This paper therefore argues that WIL programmes can contribute immensely to the overall development of graduates and increase their chances of employment. The study revealed that WIL coordinators should review placement arrangements to improve WIL. This study found that Work Integrated Learning (WIL) has a positive effect on graduate employability and skills development, and that university WIL coordinators should review placement arrangements to ensure that students have enough training and development prior to placement.&nbsp;</p> Mvuyisi Mabungela, Victor Mtiki ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Mar 2024 00:40:02 +0300 Effects of Digital Story-telling on Motivation, Critical Thinking, and Academic Achievement in Secondary School English Learners <p>While examining the findings, this study concentrated on academic success, critical thinking, and motivation. for demonstration. Secondary school students studying English are involved in digital story-telling research. A quasi-experimental approach was employed in the research with 48 11th grade students who took pretests and posttests. Teaching as DST in the experimental group and teaching as teaching in the control group were the two degrees of CT-integrated instruction that were used. Gather both quantitative and qualitative information, such as responses to academic questions and the outcomes of tests of English language and cognitive skills. Through the addition of unique cultural narratives with a Palestine focus, the work advances the DST tradition. This program sheds information on how learning outcomes for students are impacted by daylight saving time. Because ANCOVA yields effective and objective results, it was utilized in the data analysis process. &nbsp;</p> Murad A. Ahmed Tamimi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 19 Mar 2024 14:18:39 +0300 The Content Analysis of the Lesson Plans Created by ChatGPT and Google Gemini <p>Following the emergence of chatbots, especially ChatGPT, researchers have begun to examine their capabilities, credibility, and reliability in educational context. &nbsp;In this study, ChatGPT and Google Gemini are used as technological tools to create 7th-grade lesson plans for mathematics, science, literature, and social studies classes. Using prompts, these chatbots were asked to create lesson plans for the desired course, subject, and level. The data source of this study is the content produced by these chatbots. We analyzed 18 lesson plans to identify patterns and variations within the context of learning theories and models by using the Taguette qualitative analysis program. The results show that the lesson plans created by both chatbots are strongly resemblance to human-written educational content such as sentence structures, lesson activities, and assessments. Although the activities in all lesson plans defined teachers as facilitators and offered partially constructive lesson plans, it was found that the technology-integrated activities were very limited. The findings of this study provide a practical implication of chatbots for teachers and highlights educational considerations when integrating these tools into lessons.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Ahmet Baytak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 20 Mar 2024 23:43:22 +0300 Skills Learnt in Youth Work Practice Necessary for the Digital age: A Qualitative Study of NEET Youth <p>Not in education, employment and not in training (NEET) youth as vulnerable groups need to learn and relearn new set of skills needed for the digital age since traditional jobs will be replaced with new jobs that will demand a new set of skills. The study aims to explore the perspectives of NEET youth on the skills they had learnt in youth work practices that are necessary for the digital age. A qualitative approach was employed to guide the gathering and analysis of the data. Some of the skills learnt in youth work practices include business acuity, digital skills, active citizens, and teamwork skill. To improve youth work practices in the digital age, this study recommends that youth workers need to have intensive knowledge so they can implement youth work activities effectively and improve the outcomes of NEET youth in the digital age.</p> Thulani Andrew Chauke ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 Mar 2024 15:15:12 +0300